Good bugs

Garden orb spider

I was weeding this morning and found this beautiful orb spider hanging out on my iris. I’m a huge fan of spiders. Not on me, but in the garden. This one is a classic and instead of just looking spooky, means I have a partner in pest control. 

I have plenty of insects in my garden, and I’ve learned to recognize many of them as beneficial and predatory insects that help keep populations of harmful insects at low levels. The garden is full of ladybugs and lacewings, all varieties of spiders, and the other day my daughter found a praying mantis on a winter squash plant. They are voracious insectivores, and I invited him (or her) to stay as long as he liked.

It’s so important to a balanced garden to correctly identify insects. I know many gardeners who assume that any bug is a bad bug, and immediately begin spraying. Using pesticides kills many beneficial insects in the process. By recognizing and encouraging beneficial insects to reside in your garden, you will have a healthier garden that actually takes less work because it balances itself. 

It takes a little work to learn to identify the good guys, but once you do recognize them you’ll get a smile every time you see one in your garden, knowing it’s helping you take care of your plants. 

The best thing you can do if you don’t recognize a bug is to catch it in a small jar where you can observe it carefully and make your identification. Then get on the Internet, get to the library or take the bug to the county extension office for help. Here’s a good site to get you started: https://www.northcentralsare.org/Educational-Resources/SARE-Project-Products/Beneficial-Insect-Guide

Here are a few examples of some of the good guys: 

Assassin bug

Assassin bugs are quite distinct with long narrow heads and curving beaks, these may have elaborately flared crests on their back ends. Some are brightly colored, and the adults and nymphs feed on flies and large caterpillars, especially tomato hornworm.

Assassin bug nymph (photo by Brett Hondow)

Praying mantis

Praying mantis is a large bug with a distinct profile. It has a long body and short front legs that it holds in prayer-style hands.  These don’t appear often, but when they do, they make short work of all types of pests.

Praying mantis

Ground beetle

Ground beetles are the long-legged beetles in blue-black or dark brown with a shiny coat that we see darting under rocks and brush during the day. They prey on slugs, cutworms and cabbage root maggots in the soil. Some types also go after Colorado potato beetle larvae, gypsy moth and tent caterpillars.

Ground beetle (Photo by Harald Matern)

Lacewing

Lacewings are ethereal pale green or brown flying insects with large delicate wings. Although the adults don’t eat, the nymphs, resembling little alligators, are voracious feeders on aphids, thrips, mealybugs, small caterpillars and mites.

Green lacewing (photo by Melani Marfeld)

Rove beetle

Rove beetles look similar to earwigs, so don’t be so quick to squash. They have short stubby wings and a long abdomen that can resemble the pincers of the earwig. They fold their abdomens up over themselves when disturbed. They love aphids, springtails, nematodes, fly eggs and maggots.

Rove beetle (image from Emphyrios Pixabay)

Ladybug

Last but not least, ladybugs are familiar to all of us and are well known for their taste for aphids. However, their larvae may not be as familiar. These also look like short alligators, black with red stripes, and they have huge mouths for feasting.

Lady bug larvae

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